It estimated that around 1.4 million people were infected with HIV in the country in Tanzania by 2017. Tanzania mainland is experiencing a generalised HIV epidemic, with an HIV prevalence of 4.7% in general population. Heterosexual sex remains the commonest (attributing up to 80%) route for HIV transmission in Tanzania Mainland. HIV prevalence in Tanzania is characterized by significant heterogeneity across age, gender, socioeconomic status, and geographic location, implying differentials in the risk of transmission.
HIV prevalence is higher in sub-groups such as in people who inject drugs (PWID) (16-51%), men who have sex with men (MSM) (22-42%) and mobile populations and sex workers (14-35%). Women are disproportionally more affected, with an HIV prevalence of 6.3 % versus 3.9% among men. (THMIS 2011-12). The prevalence of HIV among young people aged 15-19 years was 1% (1.3% among girls, and 0.8% among boys). Furthermore, the percentage of women aged 20-24 infected with HIV is higher (4.4%) than that of men (1.7%) in the same age group.
Attainment of global target i.e.90-90.90 will lead to reduction of new HIV infections by 90% hence providing an opportunity for ending AIDS epidemic by 2030. The government has strengthened efforts to scale up HIV prevention, care, treatment and support services including the recent adaption of Treat All (test and treat) strategy. These efforts have resulted into a drop of HIV incidence rates from the peak of 1.34% in 1992 to as low as 0.07% among 15-24year-olds and 0.25% among adults (aged 15-64) in 2017. The country’s goal was to reduce the incidence in the general population to less than 0.16% by 2017.